Wednesday, February 5, 2020

The Strategy Adopted By the Capsim Company Lab Report

The Strategy Adopted By the Capsim Company - Lab Report Example The researcher states that the adoption of the niche cost leader (low technology) strategy has enabled the company to become effective in the achievement of its strategic and operational goals. Activity ratios are used in measuring the effectiveness of company goals. The company recorded a high accounts payable turnover ratio of 14.64, meaning that it takes around 15 days for the company to pay its suppliers. The Capsim Company has been paying its suppliers at a faster rate, a clear indication of how effective it has been in its operational strategies and goals. High accounts receivable turnover of 24.33 recorded by the company is also an indication of how effective the company has been it its operational strategies. The high accounts receivable turnover ratio shows how effective the company has been in debt collection and has also been efficient in turning its inventory into sales, hence its effectiveness in the achievement of its strategic and operational goals. For the Capsim Comp any to increase and improve its operations in the future, it should change its strategy to adopt a more advanced strategy such as a cost leader with product lifecycle focus strategy. The change in its strategy will enable the company reaps from sales of high products of each and every new product introduced into the segment. The increased sales from the high-end products will then enable the company to improve its profitability. The company can also change its strategy to niche differentiator (high technology) that will enable it shifts from low technology to high technology products in the low-end segments. This will enable the company to reap more sales and profits from each of the new high technology product it introduces into the segment.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Marcel Duchamps Influences on Modern Art

Marcel Duchamps Influences on Modern Art Marcel Duchamps Influence on 20th/21st Century Art 1: Introduction The influence of Duchamp’s notion of readymade art has had widespread and profound connotations for the development of art in the 20th and 21st century. Firstly, Duchamp’s art attempted to avoid many of the traditions of art at the time; his use of readymades stigmatised the notion of the artist as a creator. This radical redefinition of the role of artist informed future Conceptual artists in their attempts to relocate the boundaries that would define their role. Duchamp’s role was precisely the opposite role as those artists concerned about formulating an ideal form of subjective expression – Duchamp was more concerned about the political role of the artist and the institutions that serve to create art, rather than of the production of art itself. His readymade work challenges many of these conceptions and institutions by drawing attention to the political and social processes behind the production of art. Secondly, Duchamp’s readymade work also b roadened what could be defined as art. This placed art within a broader philosophical, structural and linguistic field of discourse in which the placement of art was more ephemeral. Ultimately, Duchamp’s project was to untie and disassemble art entirely; this is linked to the postmodern notion that categories and objects do not possess any inherent meaning, but only contain the meanings that we ourselves assign to them. As such, Duchamp’s legacy in both a practical and a theoretical and philosophical sense has served to inform cultural and artistic debate throughout the 20th century, from Jasper Johns, to pop art, performance art and other forms of avant-garde art that challenge the underlying principles behind artistic production. Duchamp’s readymade has left a profound legacy across the board of contemporary art for a number of reasons. Responses to the readymade and the challenge that it poses for a redefined art divorced from the artefact are widespread. Firstly, the elevation of a readymade work of art alters the role of the artist in the production process: Buchloh comments that the extent of Duchamp’s influence on art can be answered by responding to three particular points for discussion. Firstly, he suggests that Duchamp’s influence can be seen in how â€Å"the specific forms of how traditional forms of mark-making can be displaced by an exclusively photographic or textual operation of recording and documentation† (Buskirk Nixon, 205). The impact of this method is to erode and to redefine the role of artist. Whereas we can say that the classical and modernist form of the artist was to present us with a version of reality authenticated by the presence of the artist and the s ubjective aesthetic rules that made that artist â€Å"good† or â€Å"bad†, Duchamp’s readymade work, namely The Fountain, challenges this approach by stressing the role of the artist as a collector and an assembler rather than as a creator. Because it is obvious that Duchamp’s Fountain would not be considered a work of art if it were presented to us in a lavatory, Duchamp highlights and challenges the prejudices inherent to artistic production: namely, the traditional methods for artistic production and for â€Å"mark-making† are redefined and with it, the artist. Of course, this implication has had a profound impact on the development of 20th and 21st century art, from Jasper John’s flags to Warhol’s pop art, and has served to change the material conditions behind the production of art. The mechanistic connotations invoked by Duchamp and his readymade radically challenges and redefines the aesthetic palette available to artists; Duch amp’s influence was to challenge the subjective aesthetic of artistic production – Duchamp’s systemic use of a readymade on the one hand broadens the philosophical and conceptual basis for art production while on the other hand exposing the fallacies of art production in its more traditional sense. Of course, the impacts of this challenge have served to inform critical debate about the role of the artist in art ever since. 2: Readymades In Advance of The Broken Arm, Trebuchet (Trap), Hat Rack, Bicycle Wheel, Bottle Dryer, Air de Paris (400 words) â€Å"The elevation of a common object to the level of a work of art did not consist in merely choosing and signing it. It implied following a set of four rules: de-contextualisation, titling, limiting the frequency of the act and, the most esoteric of all, the necessity of a ‘rendez-vous’ – the meeting of the artist and the object† (Schwarz, 126). Duchamp’s readymade also served to interrogate the principles by which we define objects themselves; because Duchamp’s readymade work inherently interrogates the status of objects by changing their relation to one-another, it can be asserted that Duchamp’s project was to challenge how categories and objects are defined by their intrinsic properties rather than by their relationship to their broader environment. Buchloh points out that Duchamp facilitated the â€Å"radical dismantling of all traditional definitions of objects and categories – the ‘dematerialisation of the work of art,’ as Lucy Lippard called it – and its transfer onto the linguistic, the photographic, and the site-specific operations within which Conceptual art was defined† (Buskirk Nixon, 205). Of course, the linguistic and structural properties of Duchamp’s readymade serves to interrogate and dismantle the traditional role of artist. It also broadens the scope and the context of art itself. However, perhaps more significantly, the nature of Duchamp’s readymade does not allow for a particularly easy redefinition of art’s aesthetic role. For example, if it is asserted that Duchamp’s role was to reposition items of artistic worth and to place them into the political space of a gallery, this highlights the political rather than the aesthetic role of the gallery and the artist in measuring items of subjective worth. In addition, Duchamp’s process of selection is also telling: â€Å"The great problem was the act of selection. I had to pick an object without it impressing me and, as far as possible, without the least intervention of any idea or suggestion of aesthetic pleasure. It was necessary to reduce my personal taste to zero. It is very difficult to select an object that has absolutely no interest for us not only the day we pick it but which never will and which, finally, can never have the possibility of becoming beautiful, pretty, agreeable or ugly† (Paz, 88). Duchamp’s aim, therefore, was to divorce art from its meanings and from the methods of judgement that are usually assigned to it. His desire to locate an object that had absolutely no interest whatsoever highlights both his desire to challenge the centrality of the artistic object, and also helps us to trace his legacy through what can be construed as an attempt to apply Duchamp’s philosophical theory on locating a work of art that can never be â€Å"beautiful, pretty, agreeable or ugly†, and the inevitable failure entrenched within the politics of the readymade: despite Duchamp’s intention to create art that did not have any meaning, the assignation of meaning to Duchamp’s readymades as a series of fetishised objects seemed inevitable and also influenced other Conceptual artists in their project to erode the stability and the legitimacy of the artefact via a number of means: the fetishisation of art in late capitalism, for example, causes art to am ass a capitalistic value regardless of whether the artist him or herself wishes for a value to be attached to it. Trebuchet: a coat rack, which means a â€Å"trap for small birds and is a pun on the phonetically identical ‘trebucher’, meaning to stumble over.† (Schwarz 126-7). Section 3: Duchamp as Rrose Selavy (400 words) Duchamp and the dada movement in general were concerned about elucidating through irony and humour the role of the artist in the production process. Although the concept of the readymade changed this role from that of creator to selector of appropriate works of art, the role and identity of the artist was questioned in a more thoroughly mocking way with his invention of his female alter-ego, Rrose Selavy, whom several works of art were ascribed to. Naumann (2008) suggests that the invention of Rrose Selavy served the grander purposes and preoccupations of Duchamp’s work, whose interests and themes include â€Å"disguise, reflection and signature† (70). Taken generally, the invention of an alter-ego who has as much artistic authority as the artist himself serves to obfuscate, delude and disorient the viewer of the art in itself; the notion of disguise functions as a means of disrupting the traditional role of the artist as singular creator of the work in question. Rrose Selavy also has a performance aspect to it, which, among other things, helps to blur the boundaries between the work of art and the artist himself. Along with this, Duchamp’s alter-ego also has obvious connotations through the paradigm of gender studies. The peculiarities of Rrose Selavy’s role is particularly problematic concerning this. As well as satirising the role of artist, the construction of Rrose Selavy also expressed many of the reservations expressed by Duchamp about the increasingly blurred boundaries between gender. Hopkins (2008) argues that Duchamp’s views were deeply conservative regarding the growing concern over gender equality: â€Å"he was deeply wary of the growing autonomy and mannishness of contemporary ‘liberated’ women. [†¦] The evident preoccupation with gender indeterminacy [†¦] became thematized conclusively in the photographs of his female alter ego Rrose Selavy† (Hopkins, 81). But while Rrose Selavy can be read as a satire of the mannish women who had become increasingly empowered in 1920s France, the role of Selavy could also be seen as a satire of the â€Å"traditional† French aristocratic woman, whose conservative sensibilities are also mocked by Duchamp’s character. This problematic is also supported by the texts that frequently anchored the print representations of Rrose Selavy. Litterature magazine tagged one of his portraits with the following sentence: â€Å"Here is the Domain of Rrose Selavy – how arid it is – how fertile – how joyous – how sad† (from Hopkins 2008, 87), which demonstrates warmth and empathy with Rrose Selavy rather than irony or satire. Hopkins adds that â€Å"The Paris group may well have understood Duchamp to be killing off his old ‘dry’, dusty male persona and being reborn as Rrose (Eros).† (Hopkins, 86-7). Section 4: Duchamp’s use of language, wordplay, puns, paradoxes and humour in his work Fresh Widow, Why Not Sneeze Rrose Selavy, L.H.O.O.Q., Ready Made Rectified (Wanted $2000 Reward) (400 words) Duchamp’s assault on the art establishments and its values was executed in a manner that used a great deal of wordplay, irony and often cryptic allusion to more salacious and scandalous depths. Fresh Widow, for example, features a play on the words for French Window and can be read, as Hopkins comments, as â€Å"a salacious allusion to the sexual availability of bereaved women in Paris after the war†. Other puns assist in denigrating the stature of the traditional artistic canon by anchoring them in a completely different, and somewhat lewder context. This eroticism is exemplified by Duchamp’s famous work, â€Å"L. H. O. O. Q.†. Mundy (2008) suggests that humour and eroticism were key components to this Dada aesthetic, as Duchamp reinvented himself as a woman, disfigured a Mona Lisa with a moustache and printed underneath the letters â€Å"L. H. O. O. Q.† which, in French when pronounced phonetically translates as â€Å"she has a hot arse†. T he intention of this clearly stems from an attempt to intentionally sabotage works treated with reverence by the establishments at the time by using sexual innuendo and wordplay. In addition, the linguistic addition draws attention to what exists outside of Da Vinci’s original framing, perhaps drawing attention to extraneous factors in artistic production and reproduction that cannot be framed as easily. In many respects, the titles of Duchamp’s works have almost as great a significance as the works themselves; Mundy (2008) comments that this focus intentionally blurs the boundaries between traditional points of anchorage in the artistic production process: â€Å"The title-cum-impossible-question of another readymade, Why Not Sneeze Selavy?, posits unfathomable relationships between objective reality and subjective intentionality† (35). Paradox between different elements of the sculpture are brought into question and serve to defy simple, certain interpretation. Duchamp’s famous readymade The Fountain challenges the utilitarian role of the urinal by placing the signature horizontally rather than vertically, thus metamorphosing the work into a piece of art by defying its utilitarian purpose. For de Duve, the challenge of Duchamp’s legacy is, in part, linguistic: â€Å"I went straight for what I think to be the heart of the issue, namely the status of the sentence: ‘this is art.’ It entails no definition or redefinition whatsoever, neither of ‘this,’ nor of ‘art.’ To take a shortcut, I’d say it is the modern formula for the aesthetic judgement† (213). Because Duchamp primarily and explicitly asserts that his fountain is art because it is socially defined as such (by its location, its reception etc.), he places art within an unfamiliar field of discourse – namely that, anything can be seen as art providing it is anchored by the notion that what is being done is art. As su ch, Duchamp’s interrogates and problematizes any objective qualities that may have previously been considered â€Å"artistic† by nature. Of course, this has impacted significantly on conceptual and avant-garde art throughout the 20th century and into the 21st. His work Ready Made Rectified utilises Rrose Selavy by juxtaposing his own portrait with a wanted poster, on the one hand emphasising his role as enfant terrible of the artistic establishment and drawing ironical attention to the fallacious nature of the spectacle in itself. Humour and irony is always used to expose these central paradoxes and to create a detachment between the various angles that are interrogated by these pieces. Mundy (2008) suggests that, for Duchamp, â€Å"humour is always of a tragic nature. Humour signals a total independence of mind and is, essentially, a revolt of the spirit and of the unconscious against the conditioning of life and society. Humour has an endless power to challenge and provoke. It is a factor of opposition, superbly subversive in so far as it establishes a victory of the pleasure principle over the reality principle.† (35). Section 5: Duchamp’s work with Chance Three Standard Stoppages (400 words) Duchamp also interrogates the place of art in society by using chance operations. Three Standard Stoppages provides an example of this strategy, and again serves to undermine and interrogate the role of artist in the production process, as well as interrogating a number of other devices and standards. Firstly, Three Standard Stoppages draws attention to the authority of standardised meters. Judovitz (1995) suggests that, because the work is on the one hand based on standardised measurement, but on the other hand does not produce consistent results, undermines the legitimacy of â€Å"universal† systems of measurement, which has metaphorical connotations for the way in which value judgements are made: â€Å"it demonstrates the recognition that the meter itself as a unit of length is generated through approximation: the straightening out, as it were, of a curved meridian. Duchamp sets the viewer straight by graphically showing that the authority of the meter as a measuring devic e relies upon distortions that he corrects through chance operations† (Judovitz 1995, 48). In addition, the work also interrogates notions of artistic authority: Three Standard Stoppages â€Å"puts into question the voluntaristic and intentional logic that defines the creative act and the identity of the artist. To assume chance as a locus for production is to understand causality itself not as an origin but as a productive event, whose plasticity can redefine the notion of artistic creativity† (Judovitz 1995, 49). The utilisation of chance, therefore, metaphorically serves to emphasise the temporal element of artistic production – the â€Å"traditional† role of the artist as an objective, isolated producer of universal and timeless works is drawn into question by these chance operations. As such, the prior legitimacy of artistic creativity being equated to notions of timelessness are jeopardized. Section 6: Duchamp (or more accurately his alter-ego Rrose Selavy) The Green Box the use of Photomechanical Printing, instead of the usual autographic printing methods (400 words) The use of unusual printing methods in Duchamp’s The Green Box draws significant attention to the traditional methods associated with mechanical reproduction of works of art. The mechanical drawings of The Green Box, combined with the intentionally disruptive printing methods utilised draw attention to the very process of printing and the relationship between mass production techniques and the innately singular nature of hand-made works of art. Judovitz suggests that Duchamp’s use of mechanical drawing does not base itself around physical or scientific principles. Instead, â€Å"they represent a ‘symbolic way of explaining,’ one that privileges the logic of the machine, only to reveal its ironic underpinnings† (Judovitz 1995, 58). Significantly, the use of photomechanical printing further emphasises the problematic nature of these drawings which, on the one hand aesthetically reproduce the visual methods of mechanical drawing, while on the other hand is representative of a more outlandish, pseudoscientific principle that disrupts the legitimacy of the rubric, codes and language used to construct such mechanical, scientific devices. The use of photomechanical technology to construct these prints also draws attention to the more invisible process of production, rather than to the mere surface of the production itself. The legacy of Duchamp’s mixing and matching of various print processes has been widespread, both in terms of its philosophical qualities (questioning the authority of a single method of printing, and of the singular importance of a single work of art) and also its more technical aspects. Of course, this interrogation of the notion of artistic originality can be found in pop art, that reconciled notions of art, commerce and mass production in the generation of works of art that were no more artistically meaningful (meaningful in the traditional sense) than mass produced wallpaper or a newspaper advertisement. Thirkell (2005) comments that â€Å"Duchamp’s questioning of the notion of originality has also had a profound influence on modern print, ultimately triggering the revolution in print expression exemplified by photomechanically driven vehicle of Pop Art.† The Green Box, therefore, in its playfulness with printing processes would prove influential in the emerg ing debate surrounding artistic legitimacy, authority and originality. Section 7: Duchamp’s work in Optics in Motion Rotary Demisphere, Rotaryrelease (400 words) Many of Duchamp’s optical works focussed on optical illusion and the ambiguity of depth perception. His Rotoreliefs in particular create the illusion of depth and draw attention to the role of the artist as a magician or trickster. In addition, many of these works also had erotic connotations, as the voyeuristic proclivities of the viewer of the art are made explicit by overt and metaphorical sexualised content. Mundy (2008) comments that the Rotoreliefs and their disorientating movement echoes that of eroticism: â€Å"the visual sensation of movement back and forth had an erotic undertone† (31). This work in optics was also drawn from Picabia’s optical work, which was more overtly eroticised (Octophone II, for example). This draws attention to the innately subjective nature of sexualised imagery, and suggests that sexual content somehow alters and transfigures the technical quality of art in itself; by suggesting that sexuality is in itself a subjective illusion , Duchamp erodes the boundary that is arbitrarily placed between the art and the consumer of the artistic product. Mundy suggests that â€Å"he took the eroticisation of vision – the power of the corporeal and mental responses to control the interpretation of what is seen – to new heights† (31). This fragmentation of the process of interpretation serves metaphorically to activate the subjective, sensual feelings of the viewer of the art, who interprets the illusion as though is was not illusory. The use of optical illusion questions the boundary between what is â€Å"real† and what is â€Å"illusory†, as the eyes of the viewer effectively trick the viewer into perceiving the illusion as real. Perspective and depth and its illusory nature is made explicit by Duchamp’s works in optics. In Hand Stereoscopy, special glasses are required to give the work a level of depth, and also equates the use of colour and the use of depth: Judovitz comments that â€Å"these dots of pigment are the projection of the perspectival (mathematical) principles underlying optics† (138-9). In addition, the drawing together of depth illusions and colour serves to blur and make explicit the relationship between these technical attributes of the artistic product itself: as Duchamp himself suggests, â€Å"perspective resembles color† (Sanouillet Peterson 1973, 87). Section 8: Duchamp’s work influencing artists:Cornell: Duchamp’s work With Hidden Noise influenced Cornell’s Untitled (Rattle and Music Box); Cornell’s Cabinet of Natural History (Object) (one of the bottles containing shards of glass and labelled Methode de M. Duchamp) alludes to Duchamp’s work The Large Glass. Box Assemblages have become the process for Cornell’s entire oeuvre. (400 words) The legacy of Duchamp’s work has been significant, as many artists serve to draw attention (either explicit attention or implicit, coded reference) to the themes and codes of Duchamp’s disruptive oeuvre. Perhaps the most explicit reference to Duchamp’s legacy can be found in the work of Cornell, whose works drew directly from Duchamp and utilised much of his iconography. In particular, his Untitled works, such as Mona Lisa, Rattle and Music Box serve to use imagery popularised by Duchamp; in the former piece, the Mona Lisa in placed in a significantly different context, perhaps drawing more attention to Duchamp’s Mona Lisa of L. H. O. O. Q. than it does the original. The repetition of this imagery also draws attention to the mechanical processes of production that Duchamp used to interrogate the notion of the artist as a producer of singular works of art. Cornell’s use of readymade works can also be traced back directly to the influence of Duchamp. His Cabinet of Natural History, for example, is an assemblage of various found pieces of art placed in a glass cabinet. Apothecary bottles, maps and photographs are recontextualised in a manner thematically similar to Duchamp. In addition, Duchamp is also referenced directly, as if to interrogate further the concept of artistic authority and originality: Kosinski (2006) notes that â€Å"one bottle, containing shards of glass and labelled ‘Methode de M. Duchomp’ alludes to Duchamp’s key work, the Large Glass while playfully toying with the correct pronunciation of his French name† (39). The significance of Duchamp to Cornell is made explicit by the direct reference he makes to Duchamp’s legacy. In addition, his use of economy and meticulous, scientific rigour echoes the attention to detail of Duchamp’s scientific works. Thirdly, Cornell uses li nguistic anchorage, wordplay and the discrepancy between speech and writing (via the use of puns and misspellings) in a manner that echoes Duchamp’s work that places classical works of antiquity within a surprising new context. Section 9: Duchamp’s work influencing artists: Johns: Johns work Device makes reference to diagrams and sketches found in Duchamp’s Green Box. Johns acknowledged the powerful provocation of the readymade in his work Thoughts on Duchamps, published in1969 in Art in America. (400 words) Duchamp’s aesthetic statements on the role of artist was explored in an aesthetic sense by artists such as Jasper Johns, whose use of flags and collage sought to redefine what was considered as authentic art, Duchamp’s legacy also permeates into more conceptual fields. Buchloh comments that â€Å"the legacy of Duchamp was transformed from its first level of reception in the work of Jasper Johns to the second level in Morris – what one might call the semiological, or the structural / linguistic axis† (205). The effect of Duchamp on Jasper Johns is, by Johns own admission, significant. Again, Johns utilises Duchamp’s iconography and reformulates classical imagery in a manner that echoes Duchamp’s original idea to redefine the role of the Mona Lisa. For example, in Johns ambitious work The Seasons, explicit attention is drawn to the figure of the Mona Lisa in the first of the four paintings. Kosinski comments that irony is utilised in a manner t hat resembles the work of Duchamp himself: â€Å"The shadow in each panel of The Seasons is Johns himself, melancholic perhaps and surely self referential, although it is executed after a drawing of his cast shadow that was executed by someone else. This game of ironic distance is surely rooted in Duchamp’s play with shadow portraits† (32). This drawing of attention away from the subject and onto peripheral objects surrounding the subject draws immediately from Duchamp’s attempts to raise speculation about the single classical subject of painting. In addition, the dual authorship of these pieces raises questions about artistic integrity in a manner similar to Duchamp. Section 10: Duchamp’s work influencing artists: Rauschenberg: Duchamp’s influence is present in Rauschenberg’s boxes. He was influenced by With Hidden Noise for his work Music Box (Elemental Sculpture). (400 words) Thirdly, Duchamp’s legacy is explicitly referenced in the works of Rauschenberg, which look at the different ways in which the relationship between artistic modes of production and the increasingly fraught and disturbed relationship between artist and viewer. Rauschenberg’s Music Box (Elemental Sculpture), for instance, bears significant resemblance to Duchamp’s readymade With Hidden Noise, which demands the viewer to activate the piece in order for it to make a sound. The challenge that this poses for the viewer is similar to that of Rauschenberg: â€Å"Unwieldy, the box demands the physical engagement of the spectator-turned-performer, and the central issue is not the mysterious hidden object, but rather the potential sound itself, and the implied demands on the viewer to wrestle with the cumbersome crate† (Kosinski 2006, 19). The boxes that demand the attent ion of the viewer, and disturb the cherished role and piece of the artistic piece disturbs and challenges the traditionally voyeuristic relationship between the artist and the work in question. In addition, Rauschenberg’s boxes are more expansive in their approach to the role of art in the society that surrounds them; in a manner similar to Duchamp’s readymades, Rauschenberg takes directly from the society that surrounds it rather than approaching the production of art in a purely â€Å"creative† sense. Of course, this draws significantly upon the thematic content of Duchamp’s legacy, and draws explicit attention to the paradoxes and the frustrations that both artists had with the traditionally impotent role of art regarding the broader society that served to pigeonhole it. Rauschenberg’s process, while drawing upon Duchamp’s legacy, serves to reappropriate many of its central motifs and preoccupations in a manner that distinguishes it from the work of Cornell and Johns. While both Cornell and Rauschenberg utilised boxes in a manner that drew upon the work of Duchamp to frame its preoccupations, the nature and the content of these boxes were very different in their overall thematic context: â€Å"Cornell’s boxes are highly refined and rich in their variety of cultural allusion.† Kosinski (2006, 44) comments: â€Å"Rauschenberg’s early boxes, though small, are cruder, atavistic and dangerous rather than delightful† (44). As such Rauschenberg can be seen as taking a specific element of Duchamp’s thematic approach to readymade art and pushing it to its logical conclusion; his work is more confrontation than Cornell, who sought to beautify and protect his modified readymades by placing them in a more aestheti cally pleasing context, surrounding them in glass, etc. Rauschenberg’s work, by contrast, offers a more directly political assault on the establishment ethics at the time, drawing more upon Duchamp’s concept of the readymade as â€Å"junk from life† (Kosinski 2006, 46). Section 11: Duchamp’s work influencing artists: Robert Morris: Morris’s work Mirrored Cubes is influenced by Duchamp’s Green Box. Morris’s Three Rulers was influenced by Duchamp’s Three Stoppages. (400 words) The work of Robert Morris is also framed significantly by the central paradoxes opened up by dada and by Duchamp in particular. It’s attention, according to Benjamin Buchlow, is secondary to the primary reception in the artists described above. Here, the response to Duchamp’s work is based on â€Å"what one might call the semiological, or the structural / linguistic axis† (Buskirk and Nixon, 205). By this, Buchlow suggests that Morris’s Cardfile piece in particular draws attention to these categories of meaning regarding the tension between artistic subjectivity and anonymity. The development of Conceptual art in America, which is epitomised by Morris’s problematic work which draws attention to notions of artistic validity and of the tension between this structural and linguistic axis, is heavily indebted to the particular tensions opened up by Duchamp and his technical works which oriented itself around an exploration of the role of subjectivity in the artist. While this is drawn attention to, it is significant to note that the problematic surrounding artistic subjectivity in a given artistic piece continues to remain prevalent even in Morris’s deeply deconstructive and polymorphous work. Alberro comments that â€Å"Behind the Duchamp / Morris legacy I always see the figure of the artist; the artist / agent is always there. It’s there in both Duchamp and Morris, even in the Cardfile where he’s trying to remove it† (209). Thus, the drawing of attention to the purely linguistic sphere in Morris’s work equates to Duchamps utilisation of processes of artistic production that were traditionally outside of the traditional camp of visual, plastic art production. Like the readymades, Morris’s Cardfile is conceptual as it draws explicit attention to its own inherent aesthetic meaninglessness. It does not connote anything by itself; rather, it is defined by its context as an exhibition piece. I n addition, its purely linguistic role serves to disturb the previous aesthetic determinants of giving a piece artistic value as such. The role of artist in Duchamp’s readymade has been transfigured in a radical way into a political and social figure – namely, he is not defined by the artwork that he / she produces, but is defined by his / her position within the political space offered – this is explored by conceptual artists such as Robert Morris and in performance art where the artist does not decide to entrench himself in the dogmas of an accepted aesthetic tradition, and does not distance himself fro

Sunday, January 19, 2020

The Descriptiveness of Conrads Heart of Darkness Essay -- Literary Ana

Heart of Darkness was written by Joseph Conrad in 1902. Before it was published it appeared in a 3-part series in Blackwood’s magazine. The story tells of a detailed incident when Marlow who takes over the assignment of the captain of a ferry-boat travels into the darkness. He was employed by the Belgian Trading company. Marlow is employed to transport ivory downriver; however while doing his job, he comes across a person called Kurtz to whom he has to give the ivories after he have collected them. Kurtz is a very reputed man throughout the region and is known by everyone. The novella starts as the main character Marlow at the Thames River in the evening with several other people and starts telling the story about how he entered into the Dark Continent. The novel is a critique to the manifest destiny which is a norm believed that Europeans were chosen by god to rule over the world and make colonies all over Asia and Africa. The Europeans behaved and acted like the kings of the world. They considered Africans as objects and not people. In the novel, Africans were merely used as a backdrop where Marlow—the main character can lay out his philosophical and existential struggles. The dehumanization is harder to identify then open racism or violence. Also, Conrad, through the book hypocrites his own country and blames them for dehumanization. When it comes to analyzing the novella—symbolic interpretations, character development and language are the three main topics to discuss. The novella is written in such precision and high detail that almost every paragraph has a very significant role to play in the overall plot. The story is created to illustrate ideas and themes, rather than just a simple narrative. The ideas and themes are consta... ...ughout the Heart of Darkness. One of them starts when the unnamed reader describes the ship Nellie, himself, his fellow mates on the ship and particularly Marlow. At first, the unnamed narrator is not sure to be a character in aboard on the ship until a few paragraphs until we realise that he has been observing others—â€Å"between us there was, as I have already said†. Marlow gradually takes over the narration beginning â€Å"and this also has been one of the darkest places on earth†. Later on in the novel, Conrad has Marlow take over the entire second monologue narrative. No matter how descriptive the book is, the basic facts still remain that Kurtz was the man who jumps off the edge of insanity and plunges into the dark of insanity. Whereas, Marlow is the man who goes to the edge of insanity, looks over the edge, and had enough strength to not go over to the other side.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Coke vs. Pepsi: An Economic Analysis Essay

Executive Summary In this case study we will do an economic analysis of two major competitors; Coke ® and Pepsi ®. We will look at the history of these to competitive giants and discuss how they have evolved over the years to become rivals in the 21st Century. In this case study we will also look at the supply and demand of each company’s products. Coke and Pepsi are not only in the beverage business they have branched out into other arenas to continue being the leaders in their market. Both companies do business all over the world; we will also look at how they size up internationally as well as nationally. We will look at production and cost in the short run and long run by analyzing each company economically. Each company has forecasted where they will be financially in the 21st Century and in this analysis we will calculate if they have forecasted close to where they are today. Management is a big part of the success of large firms such as Coke and Pepsi so we will look at the management styles of each one. By looking at management will analyze the strategic decision making of each firm and note any issues they have had in the past or present with upper management. Finally strategic decisions in oligopoly markets with regards to profit maximization is vital to the firm and the shareholders alike, we will analyze those strategies as well. After reading both of these competitive giants’ histories it is clear to see they are both trend setters in their own rights. Coca-Cola ® was being formulated in Atlanta in a pharmacy and selling about 9 drinks a day to now selling over 1 billion servings of Coke products a day. With Coke the product has always been an advertisement junkie from its beginnings when the founder put the Coca-Cola name on everything to now having global ad campaigns. Pepsi has also been a media giant and has soared in the market because of its huge ad campaigns. Pepsi has been known to use mega stars like Michael Jackson and Brittney Spears to be spokesmen for the brand which has been a big success over the years. Both Coke and Pepsi have evolved and changes in look at take over the years. Coke in the early 90’s tries to change the formula to New Coke and was soon back to what is known now as Coca-Cola Classic ®. Pepsi has also tweaked its formula only to revert back to the original. Both of these companies have many many brands and brand extensions. The competitive nature is apparent in each of these companies and will continue on. Coca-Cola seems to have a slight lead in the market and has always been a leader but not by a landslide Pepsi is always running close behind. There is both loyal Coke and Pepsi customers and some who enjoy both products and go back and forth. Coke has many brands like Minute Maid, Vitamin Water, Aquafina, Sprite, and many more. Pepsi also has many of the same or similar brands like Tropicana, Sobe Life Water, and more to coincide with Coke. Brand extensions are very important in the success of these companies. Pepsi Cola and Coca-Cola were both started in the late 1800s by pharmacists in the south Pepsi in N.C. and Coke in GA. Pepsi Co was formulated in a merger with the Frito Company which became Frito Lay. Brands like Frito Corn Chips and Lays Potato Chips and Pepsi together were formed in 1965. Though apart Frito was started in 1932 and Pepsi in 1895. This 1965 merger began a lifelong relationship and successful partnership. Doritos emerged in 1965 adding to the success and Pepsi enters Japan and Eastern Europe as well. In the 70s Pepsi acquires things like Pizza Hut and Taco Bell, which adds to the brands solidity and its market value. Looking at these companies financially is where you can see how they stack up against each other. Coke has a good positive outlook on the future. Pepsi also has a good outlook on future endeavors in the US and abroad. Coke being a huge international company brought in $27.8 billion of net operating revenues from operations outside the United States. (United States Securities and Exchange Commision, 2011) Coca-Cola also created 4,700 jobs in 2011 in the opening of the Great Plains Bottling Company in the US. These leaps and bounds made by Coke are nothing abnormal it is a huge marketer. One big issue for both Pepsi and Coke is water scarcity and that most likely will have an effect on the companies’ productions costs which are in turn passed on to its consumers eventually. Coca- Cola is concerned with the water scarcity issue and reports I its 10-K filings that the water sustainability problem will more than likely have an effect on the company and reposts this, †from overexploitation, increasing pollution, poor management and climate change as the demand for water continues to increase around the world, and as water becomes scarcer and the quality of available water deteriorates, our system may incur increasing production costs or face capacity constraints which could adversely affect our profitability or net operating revenues in the long run† (United States Securities and Exchange Commision, 2011) The PepsiCo Company faces the same type of troubles when it comes to externalities. The negative effects of these externalities will take a toll on t he profits of all bottling companies since they will have to begin to develop ways to be productive without corrupting its external environment. In India drought has made water a scarcity and some of the blame is being put on Coca-Cola Bottling Plants in the area. In a village in India protest caused a $25 million a year plant to shut down. Some protestors say â€Å"drinking Coke is like drinking a farmer’s blood† Groundwater is not the only problem reported high levels of pollution have been reported as well and sludge fertilizer offered to farmers as a peace treaty high in levels of cadmium-laden in the sludge fertilizer. Protestors say why they would do that and nothing about depleting water, Coke responds that those accusations have no merit. (Ehl, 2011) PepsiCo has had the same bad reputation for depleting water resources around the globe. Coalitions like Council of Canadians and Food and Water Watch work to ensure the food, water, and fish we consume is assessable and sustainable. They also make sure the government does its job at protecting those resources as well. In conclusion Coke and Pepsi are both equally competitive and equally challenged with today’s problems. Seeing the value in both of the companies is easy they have both been models for the beverage market and for the world market alike. By looking at the history of the companies it is clear to see they run neck and neck with on another. I think going forward with the companies that there has to be greater concern for the world economics and water depletion is part of that economical problem. Learning new ways to safely produce the products in areas that have an abundant supply of resources is the key to success here. Investing in the research and development of safe ways to bottle is on the forefront of both of the bottlers’ agendas. These are two extremely successful companies that have been around for over 100 years they are not going anywhere anytime soon. Works Cited Ehl, D. (2011). Coca-Cola Charged with Groundwater Depletion and Pollution in India. Centerville: Earth Talk. United States Securities and Exchange Commision. (2011). ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES. 10-K Filings , 12-13.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Great Expectations By Charles Dickens - 1347 Words

Today, there are not many demographics that marginalize society as much as socioeconomic status. An individuals social status not only supersedes their apparent values or intellect - characteristics that truly attest to the worth of an individual in the context of social membership - but also seemingly establishes a societal dichotomy, one that divides the population into that of the rich and the poor. Whether it is due to increases in inequality or the poor status of the economy, social mobility does not seem to be occurring at high rates, with the poor getting poorer and rich getting richer. Despite this, social mobility is alive and well, and has been for centuries. In his novel, Great Expectations, Charles Dickens voices the concerns of many that lived in Victorian England during the 19th century by promoting such a desire to live life in a more prosperous social class. One of the most fundamental and reoccurring themes in the novel is that of social class. Throughout the novel, the reader examines the protagonist, known as Pip, as he transforms from a poor working boy into a wealthy gentlemen. Similarly, in 1998, Alfonso Cuaron created a film adaptation of Dickens’ novel and - despite being drastically different in some aspects - embraced the theme of social class as well. In doing so, both works were able to promote the Victorian concept of social class through the utilization of plot line and characterization. Occurring during the 19th century and marking theShow MoreRelatedGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1113 Words   |  5 Pagesadventures that the male characters go on. This seems to be relevant in a lot of movies and books like the story Great Expectations by Charles Dickens. In Great Expectations there are multiple female characters like Estella, Biddy, and Miss Havisham who all play a large part in the main character, Pip’s life. One of the first that we meet the character Estella in Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations is when Pip goes to Miss Havisham’s to play with her. The two kids play the game beggar my neighbor when EstellaRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1426 Words   |  6 Pages Twelve-year-old Charles dickens gets ready for bed after a long day at the blacking house. These Victorian-aged memories will provide him with many ideas for his highly acclaimed novel Great Expectations. Set in 1830 England, Great Expectations is a coming-of-age story about a common innocent boy named Pip and his road to becoming a gentleman through the influence of others. Pip is influenced both positively and negatively by Estella, Herbert, and Magwitch. Estella left a huge impression on PipRead MoreGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens984 Words   |  4 PagesCharles Dickens utilizes his life for inspiration for the protagonist Pip in his novel Great Expectations. They both struggle with their social standing. Dickens loved plays and theatre and therefore incorporated them into Pip’s life. Dickens died happy in the middle class and Pip died happy in the middle class. The connection Dickens makes with his life to Pip’s life is undeniable. If readers understand Dickens and his upbringing then readers can understand how and why he created Pip’s upbringingRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations943 Words   |  4 Pages This is true in many cases but none as much as in Great Expectations. In many ways the narrator/protagonist Pip is Charles Dickens in body and mind. While there are many differences between the story and Charles Dickens life there remains one constant. This constant is the way Pip as the narra tor feels, because these feelings are Dickens s own feelings about the life he lead. Since Great Expectations was written towards end of Charles Dickens life, he was wiser and able to make out the mistakesRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens1375 Words   |  6 PagesGreat Expectations by Charles Dickens and The Talented Mr Ripley by Anthony Minghella present similar criticisms of society to a large extent. Both of these texts consider the criticisms of rich social contexts (wealth and status), societal morality (whether a society is good or not. Status [can lead to the wrong people being in a high position i.e. making bad decisions affecting the community/society] Appearance [society appears to be moral/good (if you’re from a higher status) {dickens criticisesRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1223 Words   |  5 PagesBeloved author Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812 in Portsmouth, England. Growing up in a life of poverty, his childhood hardshi ps provided the inspiration to write a myriad of classic novels including his 1861 seminole masterpiece, Great Expectations (â€Å"BBC History - Charles Dickens†). Great Expectations follows the life of an orphan named Pip, who’s perspective of the world is altered when he is attacked by an escaped convict in his parents’ graveyard in the town of Kent. Throughout hisRead MoreGreat Expectations By Charles Dickens924 Words   |  4 Pagesa character driven novel, or a mix of the two. In order for a novel to be character driven, it must revolve more around the characters’ individual thoughts, feelings, and inner struggles, rather than around the quest of the story. Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, is a character driven novel. While the story does have a plot, it is not contingent upon that plot, but rather is reliant upon its characters and their natures. This is evident from the beginning of the novel. From the opening ofRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1669 Words   |  7 PagesCharles Dickens He was one of England s greatest authors of the 1800 s, better known as the Victorian era. The various themes and ideas of that time are perfectly showcased in his many novels and short stories, such as Nicholas Nickelby, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, A Tale of Two Cities, and A Christmas Carol. Much of the inspiration for these works came from the trials and conflicts that he dealt with in his own life. His volumes of fictional writing show the greatRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1017 Words   |  5 Pagesexperiencer is somewhere else absorbing knowledge of a different setting.This abstract adventure is seized by author Charles Dickens in Great Expectations. Great Expectations is historical fiction giving readers comprehension of the Victorian Era.Upon the reading, readers begin to catch on the intended purpose and its significance. A person who lived during the Victorian Era was Charles Dickens himself.He grew up during a time where differences in social class were to an extreme degree.Dickens went throughRead MoreCharles Dickens Great Expectations1344 Words   |  6 Pagessomething that is not what they truly need? Often, they use social class to fill a void in their lives that can not be filled by materialistic possessions. Many people realize this, but it is often too late. Charles Dickens demonstrates the effects of social climbing in his novel, Great Expectations. This novel explores the connections and effects of human nature and society, which are the two most powerful forces that guide people’s decisions. Some may say that social climbing is good, but as will be

Thursday, December 26, 2019

Types Of Diabetes Mellitus Insulin Dependent ( Type 1 )

Maggie Roman MED 2056 Cohort FT31 Diabetes Mellitus Mrs. Annabelle June 29, 2015 The human body achieves homeostasis through the coordination of organs and different systems throughout the body. In particular, the endocrine system plays a functional role in regulating the body’s physiological activities via chemical substances, known as hormones. The endocrine cells secrete hormones in response to body signals in a negative feedback loop, which is a self-regulatory response intended to re-establish equilibrium. A disruption or mutation in the physiological process can result in overproduction or underproduction of hormones, which is the cause of most endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus. This research paper will†¦show more content†¦The classic signs and symptoms that patients of IDDM present with include: urinating frequently (polyuria), frequent thirst (polydipsia), excessive hunger (polyphagia), fatigue, weight loss despite eating more, blurry vision, or wounds with slow or difficulty healing (www.diabetes.org, 2015). Rosdahl (2012) f urther adds, â€Å"When type 1 diabetes is diagnosed, the goal is to achieve metabolic stabilization, restore body weight, and relieve symptoms of hyperglycemia† (p.1294). In type 2 Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), the onset is typically in adulthood (30 years or older), but can present at any age. In NIDDM, the pancreas is still functional. Therefore, insulin is still produced, however, the levels may not be within normal range. Rosdahl (2012) states, â€Å"Clients with type 2 diabetes do not depend on insulin injections to sustain life, but they may require insulin for adequate glucose control† (p. 1296). The etiology of NIDDM is unknown, but an autoimmune process has been ruled out (Rosdahl, 2012). â€Å"More than 80% of clients are overweight and do not always experience classic signs and symptoms† (Rosdahl, 2012, p.1294). In addition to the three â€Å"polys†, abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated blood glucose, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia are several symptoms that a patient may present with NIDDM (Rosdahl, 2012, p.1294). The muscle cells in obese people are less responsive to insulin and lack the abilityShow MoreRelatedType 1 Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus1900 Words   |  8 PagesType 1 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents but can sometimes be diagnosed in older age. It is defined as a chronic condition in which the pancreas does not produce insulin which is needed to allow glucose, known as the bodies source of fuel, to enter the cells. Type 1 diabetes does not have a cure but can be managed with proper treatment of insulin therapy. Type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus is commonly caused by genetics, obesityRead MoreEssay on Diabetes Mellitus1381 Words   |  6 Pages1. Discuss the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition in which the body has the inability to produce insulin or react normally to insulin. The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is extremely complex, as diabetes mellitus is characterized by different types but share common symptoms and complications. Diabetes mellitus is classified in two types: Type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although the disease is characterized by different etiologiesRead More Diabetes Mellitus Essay examples1745 Words   |  7 PagesDiabetes mellitus (DM) or simply diabetes, is a chronic health condition in which the body either fails to produce the amount of insulin needed or it responds inadequately to the insulin secreted by the pancreas. The three primary types of diabetes are: Diabetes Type 1 and 2, and during some pregnancies, Gestational diabetes. The clichà © for all three types of diabetes is high glucose blood levels or hyperglycemia. The pathophysiology of all types of diabetes mellitus is related to the hormone insulinRead MoreWhat is Diabetes Mellitus? Essay655 Words   |  3 PagesWhat is Diabetes Mellitus? Diabetes is a very common disorder. It is the 8th leading cause of death worldwide. It is projected that the number of individuals with diabetes will almost double by 2030. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism. The most common feature seen in diabetes is increased blood glucose levels. The main reason for this is either a decreased/ absent insulin production or resistance of the body to the action ofRead MoreDiabetes Mellitus As A Chronic Metabolic Disorder Essay1622 Words   |  7 PagesChapter - 23 Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that prevents the body to utilise glucose completely or partially. It is characterised by raised glucose concentration in the blood and alterations in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. This can be due to failure in the formation of insulin or liberation or action. Since insulin is produced by the p cells of the islets of Langerhans, any receding in the number of functioning cells will decrease the amount of insulin that canRead MoreDiabetes : The Common Chronic Disorders1737 Words   |  7 PagesINTRODUCTION: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic disorders in UK [1]. According to Silverman, more than 2.6 million people in UK are diabetic as according to data collected from GP practices and more than 5 million obese people are registered to GP practices. So One in ten people are getting treatment for obesity and one in 20 are getting treatment for diabetes [2]. It is estimated that more than 5% men and more than 4% women in England are found to have diagnosed diabetes. While, 3% menRead MoreEssay on Diabetes898 Words   |  4 PagesDiabetes Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder that occurs when the body is unable to produce or respond to insulin, a hormone that allows blood glucose to enter the cells of the body and generate the bodys energy (Ebony, 115). Diabetes is a disease that affects approximately 3% of the world population. In American alone, 10.3 million people report having diabetes, while an estimated 10 million more individuals may have undiagnosed diabetes (Morwessel, 540). The gene for diabetes is locatedRead MoreEssay on Diabetes Mellitus1282 Words   |  6 PagesDiabetes mellitus is a collection of common metabolic disorders. The scenario of passing large amount of urine is described by the Greek and Roman physicians as diabetes whereas the term mellitus refers to sweet taste (Barrett, Barman, Boitano, Brooks, 2012). The name of the disease reveals one of the important clinical manifestation, that is, passing sweet-tasted urine, and in the other word, the presence of sugar in the urine. Besides that, Funk (2010) stated that there are three most commonRead MoreDiabetes Mellitus : The Most Common Disorder Of The Endocrine System957 Words   |  4 PagesDiabetes Mellitus stems from the Greek word diabetes, which means to siphon, or to pass through. Mellitus is Latin for sweet or honeyed. Diabetes Mellitus is the most common disorder of the Endocrine System. The pancreas is an organ behind the stomach that produces a hormone called insulin. When this happens, our liver compensates by increasing glucose production from amino acids and glycogen causing hyperglycemia. There are different types of diabetes; however, this paper strictly focuses on TypeRead MoreEssay On Diabetes761 Words   |  4 Pagesdeficiency of insulin secretion which results in the metabolic derangements associated with T1DM. Normally, hyperglycemia leads to reduced glucagon secretion; however, in patients with T1DM, glucagon secretion is not suppressed by hyperglycemia (Holt, 2004). The resultant inappropriately elevated glucagon levels exacerbate the metabolic defects due to insulin deficiency. In type 2 diabetes these mechanisms break down, with the consequence that the two main pathological defects in type2 diabetes are impaired

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Essay on History of Hunting through the Ages - 1076 Words

A lot of people just think of hunting as a thing were you go up into a tree and wait for a duck to come flying bye or a deer to walk in the sight so we can shoot them well you see that is hunting but how did we get to here. Why do we hunt the way that we do well it is because of how we got ideas off of the old ways we did it the history of hunting, the old way that we did things not the waiting for it to come to use the I am going to go get what I want and need. Now you see many people think that all hunting was from a tree and that it was from a deer stand and that we used high powered rifles to shoot deer from hundreds of yards. Well I can say that if you think that then you are just wrong that wasn’t the way that we hunted thousands of†¦show more content†¦But during this time was when they had stone tools that helped them with their hunt. Like they would have sharp rocks on the tip of sticks to help cut up there catch or help kill it. The hunting style never chang ed they still chased after the animals and never settled down they were in a nomads place a no home kind of place but really this is the foundation to the history of hunting. Basically as a start this is where it is there was nothing else really in hunting that changed yea before aps chased down the prey just like they did and they followed them so this was the foundation that this time still there was no change. But around 15000 years later they found arrows and arrow heads which mean that hunting towards 5000 B.C took a turn they had bows which are used for longer ranged kills or put downs so you can go and kill the animal while it is down. But that means that they were starting to learn that you have to wait for the animal you can’t just go for it you have to wait for it to come to you. So with the high power of the bow and the reach with the spear you could do many things, now this latter on about 300 years later and this is where the first animal that helps with hunting and that is the horse. Many people started stabbing spears into animals and shooting bows from horseback, because us as humans if it is a deer or a bison that is running there is no way that we are going to check it. Well ifShow MoreRelatedWhat s Merica Without Meat1657 Words   |  7 PagesWhat s Merica’ Without Meat A man and his son make their way through the dark on a cool fall morning. The fog lies over the hills like a thick blanket. The man and his son talk about the things that have happened in recent times and share memories from years past, too. The morning continues, and as time passes, the two realize that this will be an experience to remember for many years to come. Countless generations throughout the ages have shared the tradition of hunting.Before the time of modernRead More Pre-Agricultural Human Environmental Impact Essay819 Words   |  4 Pagesthe remarkable ability to adapt to any environment. Archaeological evidence has proven that the earliest humans were able to occupy and control every terrestrial ecosystem on the planet. Human impact on the environment has increased progressively through time from the earliest hominid hunters to modern city-dwellers. A fundamental expression of early humanities ability to control the environment occurred during the birth of agriculture. While the ecological impact from this feat has allowed humanityRead MoreHunting Should Be Allowed1412 Words   |  6 PagesShelby Morgan Professor Colon ENC 1102 July 17, 2009 Hunting Should Be Allowed Hunting is beneficial to our society and therefore should be allowed. Historically human beings have been pursuing wild animals to provide their families with food, clothing, and shelter. In modern times the need for hunting for survival has lessened because of the development of animal husbandry and agriculture. There were times in history worldwide when hunting became profitable and hunters began killing animalsRead MoreLittle Bison Basin Prehistory1329 Words   |  5 PagesLittle Bison Basin Prehistory Prior to the last ice age, the entire region of the Great Plains is believed to have been an inland sea known as the Western Interior Seaway. As this seaway receded, large animals including mammoths and saber toothed tigers lived in the area. The majority of these animals became extinct to the region around 13,000 years ago during one of the ice ages. The great plains are a vast region of North America that spreads from Canada nearly down to the Coast of Texas. ThisRead MoreHunting Is No Longer Necessary For Survival1703 Words   |  7 Pagesfield and hunt game for me.† Hunting started millions of years ago for the intentions of food, clothing, and shelter supplies. Back in the Stone Age, hunting was essential for surviving in those critical situations that derived from everyday living. Recently hunting has become more a recreational sport and less of a necessity for survival, it is true that most hunters now days still eat the meat from the animals that they kill for sport and pleasure. However, hunting is no longer necessary for survivalRead MoreComparing Frans Snyders Deer Hunting And Frida Kahlo s The Wounded Deer1423 Words   |  6 Pagesability to compare and contrast art, literature, and other mediums as well as being able to analyze works with my own interpretations. I have chosen two paintings to compare and co ntrast for this essay: Frans Snyders’ Deer Hunting and Frida Kahlo’s The Wounded Deer. Deer Hunting was painted in 1631 in Belgium during the Baroque period. The Wounded Deer was painted in 1946 in Mexico and is a piece of surrealist art. Although these pieces of art were painted during two different time periods they areRead MoreWolves: Keeping Nature in Balance Essay1057 Words   |  5 PagesEveryone knows of the apocryphal evil that is wolves, hunting our children, killing our livestock, taking the best deer. Having a wolf hunting season seems like a no brainer, right? But what if that’s not how wolves are, what if they are innocent, so to say. Should they be hunted? The short answer is no. There should not be a wolf hunting season because many of the thoughts on wolves are incorrect; hunting would compromise wolf studies, and the population is already suffering. We have all heardRead MoreNeanderthals, Ancestors to Human Beings Essay908 Words   |  4 Pagesmajority based in Europe and small groups scattered throughout the Middle East and Asia. Historically, the Neanderthals were among the most resiliant creatures to exist on Earth. As a population, they thrived during the European ice age 40,000 years ago. This ice age enveloped the majority of Northern and Central Europe and due to their physique were the Neanderthals were able to surive. Physcially, the Neanderthals were larger and more muscular than today’s human beings. In addition, their increasedRead MoreA Vikings Civilized World1265 Words   |  5 Pagesthe Vikings’ world were demonstrated through its political, culture, and interaction with environment. In the ancient days of the Vikings, the political aspect of their world consisted of improving the organization and civilization of the Vikings’ lives; the topics that prove this statement were law, structure, and war. As William R. 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